Billy Rose Art Garden

The garden was designed by the Japanese-American sculptor Isamu Noguchi and is its best known attraction. Known now simply as the Art Garden, its genesis lies in a bequest by a once very famous American, the showman/songwriter and investor Billy Rose. Born William Samuel Rosenberg on what was then called the Lower East Side (now the smart East Village) in 1899, Mr. Rose started out life working as a stenographer for the Wall Street financier and later presidential adviser Bernard Baruch, where he acquired the reputation for being the fastest taker of shorthand in the world. He went on to find his fortune assisted fortuitously by the bonds of holy matrimony to the great star of the Ziegfeld Follies, Fannie Brice (Funny Girl).







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Shrine of the Book


The Shrine of the Book in Jerusalem where the Dead Sea Scrolls are kept.




Its pale concrete dome is shaped

like the lid of one of the jars

in which the “Dead Sea Scrolls” were discovered in 1947.












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The Jews were pushed into an exile from their homeland that would last almost 2,000 years. In their absence, Palestine continued to be a crucible or a stage for major historical events – the rise of Islam, the Crusades, the ascendancy of the Ottoman Turks, the imperial rivalry between France and Great Britain.

South of the Knesseth are the pavillions of the Israel Museum containing the Shrine of the Book, Archeological Museum, Bezalel Art Gallery, Billy Rose Art Garden and Department of Antiquities. After the restoration of the Jewish homeland in 1948 the Israelis produced this magnificent museum chronicling the history of Palestine and the Middle East. The Israel Museum in Jerusalem, founded in 1965, is a 20-acre complex that draws almost 1 million visitors a year to its unmatched collections of Judaica and Middle Eastern archaeology, which include the priceless Dead Sea Scrolls.




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Knesseth Menorah




In front of the entrance to the Knesseth, stands a 5m high seven-branched candlestick, symbol of the state of Israel, designed and cast in bronze by Benno Elkan. Twenty-nine reliefs show figures and events from Jewish history. It was a gift from the British parliament.




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Yad Vashem Memorial Wall to victims in camps



" And to them will I give a house and within my walls a memorial...There will I put a perpetual name
that shall never be cut off. " (Isaiah, 56:5)




Barbwire Memorial to the Victims in Camps






Memorial to Ghetto Fighters





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Holocaust train cattle car


This cattle car was used by the Nazis to transport Jews to the camps. It was given to Yad Vashem by the Polish authorities in 1990. Now part of a memorial designed by Moshe Safdie, it sits on a severed railroad track jutting out over the slope of a hill, suspended between heaven and earth.


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Yad Vashem Holocaust Memorial


Yad Vashem - the Holocaust Martyrs' and Heroes' Remembrance Authority - is a sprawling complex of museums, archives, monuments and sculptures connected by a maze of walkways. It is the world's largest repository of information about the Holocaust.. "Shem" means name. Six million Jews (along with a fair number of gypsies, homosexuals, disabled and people with the wrong ideology) were killed in a mind-boggling example of man's inhumanity to man. The goal of Yad Vashem is to give a name to every person who died, to personalize this faceless mass, branded like cattle, numbers burned onto their arms, packed into cattle cars, and shipped off to concentration camps and gas chambers.





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Chagall's stained-glass windows




The Hadassah Medical Center (University Clinics) was opened in 1962 and is part of the Hebrew University. In its synagogue can be seen the twelve stained-glass windows by the painter Marc Chagall and the stained-glass artist Charles Marcq, illustrating the 12 sons of Jacob.














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How to attract children to school ?

Hot Turkish coffee, warm fresh knafee, traditional pastries of honey and nuts... to serve as a sweet incentive to encourage children to read and read more… this is a never-failing means to bring children to their desks.



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Nazareth Nursing School


Nursing is seen as a fulfilling career for men and women, and students and their families are proud to be associated with it. Those training at the School are often under considerable pressure, often having to juggle practical work, study, family responsibilities and in some cases part-time jobs. The demand for nurses in Israel and the Occupied Territories has increased over the past few years and the number of student nurses has doubled from 70 to 150.  The Nazareth School of Nursing, while led and managed by Christians, acts as a beacon of healing and hope to all, regardless of faith or nationality. 





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In Holyland Hotel a model of ancient Jerusalem - Pâques 1985



On the grounds of HOLYLAND HOTEL, there is a model of ancient Jerusalem. The project was the brainchild of Hans Broch, the owner of Holyland Hotel, who also paid for it. The work which was begun in 1965 and practically completed by 1968, has resulted in an imposing layout combining scientific accuracy with visual impact: this is what Jerusalem must have looked like “at the time of the Second Temple, shortly after the rule of Herod the Great”, in other words at the time of Jesus. 





The entrance to the site is on the West side of the model and affords a view of the whole city looking over towards the Temple Mount. The lines of the Second Wall and the Third Wall (built by Agrippa) can be seen, with an almost open space between them.









On 1000 sq. m  the original contours have been reproduced in reinforced concrete  and correctly oriented as well, which is important for the effect of light and shade. The original building materials have been used (stone, marble, metal) so it did not need to be roofed over. This helps to make it even more lifelike but means that the details are not as accurate as they could have been if modelled in plaster or plastic.




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Cardo shopping area


Uncovered by Nahman Avigad's team in the 1970s, the Cardo in the Jewish Quarter was excavated for about 200 meters.  This portion dates to the time of Emperor Justinian in the first half of the 6th c. A.D.  An earlier portion of the Cardo was constructed in the Roman period beginning at the modern Damascus Gate in the north, but it didn't stretch this far south until centuries later. Later it  was a Byzantine road, roughly the equivalent of an eight-lane highway, that ran through the heart of the city. Today, a small area is preserved with some of the original Roman columns.  Just beyond the columns is an underground mall with a number of Jewish stores and art galleries. This is a good place to purchase Judaica, and it is possible to haggle with shopkeepers.



The columns supported a wooden (no longer preserved) roof that covered the shopping area and protected the patrons from the sun and rain.  Today the Byzantine street is about 6 meters below the present street level, indicating the level of accumulation in the last 1400 years.





 A portion of the Cardo has been rebuilt as a modern shopping lane.  Jewish storekeepers sell fancy souvenirs and keepsakes to tourists "for a good price."  This street continues north to Damascus Gate; as it leaves the Jewish Quarter it becomes the division between the Christian and Muslim Quarters.  As in ancient times, this street is still the main one in the Old City, but today it is much narrower than it once was.







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Cardo main street - Medeba Map


          Medeba Map

A 6th c. church floor in Medeba in Jordan, has a mosaic map of the land of Israel with numerous place names in Greek. The center of the map is an open-faced depiction of Jerusalem with the city walls, gates, churches (with red roofs), and the Cardo.  This main street of the city is depicted with two rows of colonnades running the length of the city from north to south.

The central street of the Cardo is 12 meters wide and is lined on both sides with columns.  The total width of the street and shopping areas on either side is 22 meters, the equivalent of a 4-lane highway today.  This street was the main thoroughfare of Byzantine Jerusalem and served both residents and pilgrims.  Large churches flanked the Cardo in several places.


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Jerusalem Gates



The Golden Gate or Herod's Shushan Gate


During the time of the First Temple, the Eastern Gate was the main entrance into the Temple area. It was also the gate that Jesus entered on a humble donkey in His triumphal entry.  The Golden Gate (Eastern Gate) in the eastern wall of Jerusalem gave access to the courtyards of the Temple from the Kidron valley. The Jews believed that the Messiah would enter the city here. For this reason (and certainly also for strategic reasons) the Arabs walled up the entrances and also laid out a cemetery in front of the gate.




Dung Gate and Tanners' Gate


The Dung Gate gives entrance to the Jewish Quarters and the Wailing Wall.



This winter's abundant rains -- and snow -- left a display of wildflowers next to Tanners' Gate.










Below the gate is the 5th century Cardo and above, walls built in the time of Suleiman the Magnificent.




 Tsahal's patrol in the Cardo


 St Stephen's or Lion Gate

This gate is so named because of the tradition that the first Christian martyr was stoned outside this gate. However an earlier tradition locates this execution north of the city. Lion Gate is another name for this eastern entrance into the Old City because of the four animals that decorate the gate's facade and reportedly placed there because of a dream of the builder Suleiman.







Jaffa Gate

The gate known as "Jaffa Gate" opens on the road leading to the port at Jaffa on the Mediterranean Sea. In Arabic it is called "Bab el–Khalil, "the Gate of the Friend." It is a reference to Abraham called "the friend of God" (Isaiah 41:8) and from here the main road heads south to Hebron — the burial place of Abraham. The pedestrian entrance to Jaffa Gate, a pointed–arch entrance, is on the left side. To the right of center, a minaret is called "David’s Tower." This of course is a misnomer. Most of the visible towers and walls date to the Ottoman Period (A.D. 1517– 1917), while the minaret itself dates back to ca. 1655.



Damascus Gate

The largest and most splendid of the portals is Damascus Gate. It was built in 1542 by the Ottoman ruler Suleiman the Magnificent in the surrounds of the old city of Jerusalem. This wall is the largest and most splendid of all the other walls. It is located on the wall’s northern side. Parts of this charming higher, imposing wall are built with massive stones that date back to the time of Herod. The wall is pierced by 8 gates - seven are open and one is closed. Until 1887, each gate was closed before sunset and opened at sunrise. 

 Located on the wall's northern side, the gate is adjacent to ruins attesting that this has been the site of the city's main entrance since ancient times. Its defenses include slits for firing at attackers, thick doors, and an opening from which boiling oil could be spilled on assailants below.



In daytime...



                              On a snowy winter day...


 Zion Gate
Located in the south, Zion gate was used by the Israel Defense Forces in 1967 to enter and capture the Old City. The stones surrounding the gate are still pockmarked by weapons fire. This entrance leads to the Jewish and Armenian quarters.


Herod's Gate

Herod's gate was closed until the late 1800's. It is decorated with a roselike design, and was named due to a mistaken identification of a church nearby as the home of Herod Antipas.




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Cleared esplanade of the Wailing Wall



The Wailing Wall or Western Wall ("Kotel Hama 'aravi"), long of 48 m and 18 m high, on the SW side of the Temple district, is the largest of the sites venerated by the Jews. Where the open space borders the wall, it is cut off by a railing and the area is used as a synagogue, the right-hand part being for women and the left-hand part for men. This is where great religious ceremonies take place and where army recruits are sworn in.



The Wailing Wall gets its name from the lamentation of the Jews for the destruction of the Temple. It was the only part of the Temple that was almost always accessible to them. Pious Jews prefer coming here rather than going into the Temple square itself since the position of the Holy of Holies where none but the high priest may go is not precisely known. Since 1967 the densily built site during the Jordanian rule, has been made into a huge open square. Orthodox Jews clad in black gather there for religious debates. A radical group of Orthodox Jews have periodically issued threats against the Muslim shrines in hopes of rebuilding the Temple there. These threats are treated seriously by the Israeli authorities and the group is kept away from the Temple Mount. More mainstream Orthodox opinion forbids Jews from walking on the Temple Mount because of the possibility of unwittingly defiling the place where sacrifices were once offered. Non-Orthodox Jews typically accept the opinion of other authorities who argue the sanctity of the Temple Mount ended when the Temple and altar were destroyed and that it is permissible for Jews to go there so long as they show respect for what was once a holy place.



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Jerusalem, Jewish Quarters - Pâques 1985


On the open square in front of the New Jewish Town, gathering of rabbis and orthodox Jews.






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Bethlehem, in 1985

In 1985 Bethlehem was a prosperous town thanks to its immediate proximity for pilgrims and tourists on the outskirts of Jerusalem.



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